Method - Radical transactiveness


Radical transactiveness is a way of snow-ball sampling to identify fringe stakeholders. Radical transactiveness is a dynamic capability which seeks to systematically identify, explore, and integrate the views of stakeholders on the “fringe”—the poor, weak, isolated, non-legitimate, and even non-human—for the express purpose of managing disruptive change and building imagination about future competitive business models (Hart and Sharma, 2004; Reed et al. 2009; Hermans, 2005).


Identify new stakeholders and new issues that might otherwise be missed and minimizes risks to the future of the project.

Guidance on performing this method

  • Start with a few earlier defined stakeholders during for example interviews
  • Ask these stakeholders to name new stakeholders names, organizations and categories.
  • Use their contacts in order to reach the new stakeholders
  • A comprehensive list of stakeholders and categories can be made. Based on budget and time a decision can be made who should be involved. For a good understanding it is recommended to objectively and critically analyse who are the stakeholders that eventually are to be included in the analysis (and who are not) (Reed et al. 2009; Hermans, 2005)


  • Systematical approach
  • A way to include all stakeholders


  • It is time-consuming


References to be fully worked out (Tara)

  • Hart and Sharma, 2004;
  • Reed et al. 2009;
  • Hermans, 2005

Further reading